Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Hydraulic Fracturing And Strict Liability

Well, I'm back.

After something of a hiatus over the summer and early fall due to work and personal commitments, I am back to blogging about water. And first up is an issue much in the press here in Pennsylvania - hydraulic fracturing, or as it is sometimes known hydrofracking or just fracking.

Just for the benefit of anyone not familiar with the term, hydraulic fracturing is a technique used to extract natural gas from shale formations. In much of the Northeast, it has become a matter of public debate due to technological developments that now allow hydraulic fracturing of the Marcellus Shale, a particularly deep and large shale formation which underlies much of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia.

The debate over hydraulic fracturing has been intense. On the one hand, the Marcellus Shale represents a massive reserve of natural gas - a far cleaner energy source than oil. And thus represents an enormous potential economic benefit to the various states the Marcellus Shale underlies. On the other hand, many have raised concerns, particularly in a post gulf oil spill world, over the potential for environmental contamination due to hydraulic fracturing. A number of stories about contaminated drinking and ground water have spurred these fears to the point that both New York and Pennsylvania have enacted moratoriums on hydraulic fracturing (though there is speculation that Pennsylvania's new governor may repeal Pennsylvania's limited moratorium).

Well, the foes of hydraulic fracturing have just won a minor victory in a recent federal court decision coming out of the Middle District of Pennsylvania. In Fiorentino v. Cabot Oil & Gas Corp., No. 09-cv-2284 (M.D. Pa. November 15, 2010) Judge John Jones refused to dismiss a suit against Cabot arising out of allegations that Cabot's hydraulic fracturing operations contaminated the plaintiffs’ property and water with methane, natural gas, and other toxins. The decision is significant because one of the questions before the court was whether a claim of strict liability can be brought against a hydraulic fracturing operation.

For the non-lawyers among my readers, certain types of activities – the most common example being blasting – are considered so intrinsically hazardous that someone engaged in those activities will be liable for any harm they cause, even though they have taken every possible precaution against such harm. This enormously reduces the evidentiary burden on plaintiffs, who only need to prove that the defendant was engaged in the activity, and that the activity caused the harm complained of.

In Fiorentino the plaintiffs asserted, among others, a claim for strict liability. Cabot sought dismissal of that claim, arguing that while Pennsylvania courts have never directly addressed this issue in the context of hydraulic fracturing, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court has consistently held that other oil and gas related activities are not sufficiently hazardous to invoke strict liability. The court, though not finding that Cabot’s drilling activities were subject to strict liability, ruled that a detailed factual record needs to be developed before such a decision can be made.

If the Fiorentino case does not settle first, there is the potential for a determination that gas exploration, and hydraulic fracturing in particular, could be found to be an abnormally hazardous activity subject to strict liability. That could have a profound effect on the exploration of the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania.

This is one to watch.

Friday, June 4, 2010

What Do You Think Lawyers Should Be Thinking About

I have recently joined the planning committee for the 2011 American Bar Association Water Law Conference which will be taking place in San Diego next February. And we are currently in the process of determining the themes and panels for the conference.

In thinking about discussion topics for the conference, it occurred to me that it would be interesting to hear what you think we should be talking about. The American Bar Association is almost certainly the largest organization of attorneys in the United States. And this conference will pull together attorneys involved in water issues from across the country, including lawyers from both the private sector and government agencies.

So…What do you think the lawyers should be talking about?

In the hopes that this becomes a discussion, please post any thoughts in the comments section as opposed to e-mailing me directly. Also, the more specific the idea/issue, the more useful it will be. While I welcome anyone’s opinions on this subject, I am particularly interested to hear what non-legal practitioners have to say. What are the issues/problems you worry about? What do you encounter in your day-to-day activities that you feel need to be discussed, or discussed more than they are. Obviously to the extent there is a clear legal dimension to the issue, the more appealing it will be for this group.

Monday, May 24, 2010

Great Article On Water Scarcity At The Economist

I have long been a fan of the Economist. The writing is excellent, well thought-out, and often reports on stories ignored or buried by other news sources here in the U.S.

On Friday, the Economist published an article on water scarcity. The article provides an expansive overview of the problem. While the breadth of the article understandably limits the depth with which it covers various issues, the article is an excellent introduction for anyone who wants to learn about water scarcity.

I highly recommend you check it out.

Wednesday, May 12, 2010

Senate Climate Bill Sees Light Of Day

Senators John Kerry and Josef Lieberman unveiled their long awaited climate bill, “The American Power Act,” today (The bill, along with some explanatory documents can be found here). Weighing in at almost 1000 pages, the bill tries to provide a little bit of something for just about everyone. Though primarily aimed at curbing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting various energy initiatives, there are some provisions which should be of interest to people involved with water related issues.

Though I am still parsing through the bill myself, Title VI of the bill – addressing adaptation to climate change – has jumped out at me as being particularly relevant to the water community. That part of the bill creates a new “Natural Resources Climate Change Adaptation Panel.” The Panel (easier than saying NRCCAP), will be made up of the heads (or their delegates) of essentially every federal agency that has anything to do with natural resources or the environment. And the Panel is tasked, within a year of its formation, of formulating a comprehensive national strategy:

(1) to protect, restore, and conserve natural resources so that natural
resources become more resilient, adapt to, and withstand the ongoing and
expected impacts of climate change; and
(2) to identify opportunities to mitigate the ongoing and expected impacts of climate change.

Once formulated, this Strategy will be rolled out to all of the various agencies and organizations represented on the Panel who then have to formulate plans of their own to implement the Strategy.

Water management and conservation are mentioned relatively prominently throughout the bill, considering its focus on energy and GHG emissions. And from a number of the provisions it appears that the bill will provide at least some new federal funding for water management and conservation efforts.

Of course, this bill is in its infancy. And there is no guarantee that it will pass in its current form, or at all. And at the end of the day, where the rubber meets the road here is less with the terms of the bill, and more with the regulations and rules that come out of it.

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

A Human Right To Water

I have written a couple of times on the issue of whether there is, or should be, a human right to water. I was recently contacted by Isobel Foulsham, an MA student in human rights at the Institute of Commonwealth Studies in London. Isobel created a short video advocating the existence of a human right to water.

The video is only three minutes, but is actually very well done – in particular I like the style of animation that was used. From a more substantive perspective it also imparts important information about the dire straits much of the world is in when it comes to access to potable water.

I agree with Isobel’s positions on the nature of the problem, the problems with bottled water, and the need to make better use of municipal water supplies. I am not quite as against the commoditization of water as Isobel appears to be, though my concept of commoditization doesn’t really apply to water used for personal uses (i.e. drinking, bathing, washing etc.), which is the thrust of the video.

Given the inherent limitations of a three minute treatment of a complex issue, I think Isobel did a very good job encapsulating many of the issues associated with a human right to water. I highly recommend you check it out.

Thursday, April 15, 2010

When Does Efficiency Not Lead To Conservation?

It is a hallmark of current thinking among conservationists that one of the greatest tools in our arsenal to promote the conservation of natural resources is increasing the efficiency of our use of those resources. The entirely logical line of reasoning being that if we get more bang for our buck, then we need less bucks – or water, coal, oil, electricity etc. This is a bedrock principle of modern water management. But recently I have been called on to look at “efficiency” a little more closely.

A couple of months ago I wrote a post about a recent report issued by the Pacific Water Institute on the great strides that can and have been made to increase the water efficiency of agriculture in California. In particular was one example I cited from the report of a farm that reported increasing its water efficiency by 20% (which can be found on p. 33 of the report).

I just received an extensive comment to the post asking about that particular 20% number. Wayne Bossert, manager of the Northwest Kansas Groundwater Management District No. 4, asked whether the 20% increase in efficiency represented a decrease in “consumptive use” or a decrease in water “diverted and applied.” Mr. Bossert explained the question as follows:

In any hydrologic system where the water supply and the water sink (where non-consumptive water uses go) are the same, increasing irrigation application efficiency just eliminates the sink supply and provides a higher percentage of the applied water to consumptive use crop production. You can pump less water with the higher efficient irrigation system, but you can also actually consume more water.

The 65% efficient irrigation system only makes 65% of the applied water available for crop production. The rest is non-consumptive use that returns (eventually) to the supply - at least in a traditional groundwater aquifer system. When a new 99%efficient drip system is installed, the producer pumps 75% of what he used to, but 99% of it is made available and consumed by crop production. My math tells me that 99% of 75% is more than 65% of 100%.

It is this extra water use that increases the yields so often reported when higher efficiency systems are converted to.
(Please read the rest of the comment here)

This comment struck me in two ways. First, I had always assumed that “efficiency” must be “good” in all circumstances – this comment has made me realize that “efficiency” is really a far more nuanced concept in water management. Second, as I have discussed in several different contexts, I believe that water management really needs to be looked at holistically, taking into consideration the entire hydrologic cycle. And that is exactly the point Mr. Bossert is making. In his example of the 65% efficient irrigation system, the other 35% of the water that does not go to the crops is not necessarily lost or destroyed. In fact, usually, that water simply returns to the natural hydrologic cycle. The same cycle that ultimately is the water supply.

To answer Mr. Bossert’s specific question, I have to say that the report doesn't provide a clear answer because as far as I can see it doesn’t squarely address the issue (though I admit I did not comb through all 75 pages). But my reading of it leads me to believe that the 20% increase in efficiency referred to a decrease in water “diverted and applied.” If the goal of water conservation is to reduce human use (i.e. consumption) of water, it seems we need to give greater thought to what it means to increase the efficiency of our water use.

This doesn’t mean that increased efficiency is a bad thing. Indeed, Mr. Bossert himself makes that point. And the Pacific Institute Report notes a number of non-consumption related environmental benefits associated with increasing irrigation efficiency. What it does mean is that increased efficiency may not be the ultimate solution for one of the largest water management challenges we face – dwindling supplies.

Tuesday, March 23, 2010

New EPA Construction Site Effluent Rule

Those who read this blog are aware of my coverage of new numerical standards for nutrient pollution the EPA is enacting in Florida. Well that is not the only place they are putting numerical criteria into effect. Below is a news alert from two attorneys at my firm, Ralph Ferrara and Jennifer Simon Lento. Ralph is the head of our construction law practice, and Jennifer is an associate in our environmental department (who also has an excellent blog on off-shore wind farms that you can find here). So without further ado:

On February 1, 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) made effective a new final rule that imposes national monitoring requirements and enforceable numeric limitations on storm water discharges at all construction sites larger than one acre.

Under both the present and past regulatory schemes, all construction activities that could result in the discharge of pollutants into nearby bodies of water require the owner or operator to obtain permit coverage pursuant to the EPA’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program or through a state administered analog program.

The new limitations, which include new effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs) and new source performance standards (NSPS), must be incorporated into all permits issued under EPA’s NPDES program or under analog programs administered by state agencies.

Compliance with the new rule will be staggered over the next four years. As of the effective date, construction site owners and operators that disturb one or more acres must use “best management practices” (BMP) to ensure that soil disturbed during construction activity does not pollute nearby water resources.

Specific numerical limitations will take effect in 2011 and 2014 for sites larger than 20 acres and 10 acres respectively. These sites must sample stormwater discharges, and meet a limitation of 280 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units). Sites larger than 20 acres must begin monitoring and sampling discharges to comply with the new limitations beginning on August 1, 2011. Sites larger than 10 acres will become subject to the same monitoring, sampling and compliance obligations on February 2, 2014.

These requirements will apply both to EPA’s Construction General Permit (CGP) and to individual permits issued by the states or by EPA. New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware issue their own CGPs and individual permits. The new requirements must be incorporated into any new general permits issued after February 1, 2010. However, any CGP or individual permits issued by a state or by EPA prior to February 1, 2010 will remain valid until their expiration dates, and need not comply with the new final rule.

This rule is further evidence that the once sleeping EPA is now becoming active. And I believe we can expect this trend to continue into the foreseeable future.

ps. Please note that this is a brief summary of the new rule and there are other changes not discussed here which may impact specific situations. If you have a specific construction matter that you are concerned may be impacted by this new rule, please contact either Ralph or Jennifer to discuss it.

Monday, March 22, 2010

Is A Human Right To Water A Bad Idea?

Dr. Mike Compana of Oregon State University – known as Aquadoc – recently put up a post asking whether the human right to water is a bad idea. The question is prompted by an article in Global Water Intelligence opposing the UN High Commission For Human Rights’ (UNHCHR) possible adoption of an obligation on the part of utilities to provide a basic supply of free water to low-income groups, regardless of whether the supply could be successfully financed. I will not repeat the arguments in the article, other than to say that they focus on whether such an obligation would halt private investment in extending water services. It is worth a read and I highly recommend you head over and check it out.

Thursday, March 18, 2010

Florida Gets Another Reprieve, In Part, From Numerical Standards

I have written several posts about the EPA’s decision, in settlement of a lawsuit, to enact numerical standards for nutrient pollution in Florida. The original settlement called for the EPA to have issued such criteria by now. Two months ago the EPA extended the comment period for its proposed criteria – a step that many expected.

Yesterday the EPA issued a new letter to the Florida DEP stating its intention to delay the implementation of numerical standards for estuaries and coastal waters until 2011. In addition, the EPA will apparently seek “additional third party review,” to be announced next month, to review the scientific basis for water standards applicable to these environments.

For environmentalists this is bad news in as much as it delays the implementation of standards until next year. For those who oppose new environmental regulation, that regulation has just been put off a year for a large swathe of areas that would otherwise be affected.

I believe however that this announcement is a good thing in the end. Numerical nutrient regulations are probably necessary, but given their complexity should not be rushed into. If the regulations are going to be meaningful they need to be backed up by science addressing the particular environments to be regulated – something that is thin on the ground at the moment. Remember, unlike other contaminants, these are compounds that are both naturally occurring and necessary for normal aquatic ecosystems. Appropriate levels of these compounds can also vary from one water environment to another. As a result, generalized standards are neither appropriate nor possible.

Thursday, March 4, 2010

Nutrient Standards Delayed 30 Days

Florida got a brief reprieve today from the enactment of numeric nutrient standards. The EPA announced today that it would extend the comment period for its proposed numeric nutrient standards for 30 days to "ensure that Florida residents voices are heard...."

This is an issue I have reported on before because of the likelihood that such standards will eventually be mandated nationwide. Numerical nutrient standards are controversial due to the cost associated with determining what the appropriate levels of nutrients are in various bodies of water.

Many in Florida are watching these proceedings with interest/apprehension.

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

A Return To Blogging And A New Report From The Pacific Institute

After something of a hiatus do to work obligations, I’m back. And I think I should start off my return to regular (or at least more regular) posting with a positive story.

A new report has just been issued by the Pacific Water Institute, home to Peter Gleick, a much admired voice among those concerned with water related issues.

The eponymous subject of the report is “California Farm Water Success Stories,” and its purpose is to highlight examples of farmers in California who have made significant strides to increase the efficiency of their water usage. There is even a short video that accompanies the report that you can find here.

So why do you care? You care because agriculture is far and away the single most significant consumer of potable water in United States, and the world. As a result, any increases in agriculture’s water efficiency can have a dramatic effect on water supplies. Currently this is a critical issue in California and much of the southwestern United States.

The thrust of the report is that solving California’s water shortage requires increasing the efficiency with which Californians, and particularly farmers, use water. Moreover, increasing efficiency by a significant amount (one farm estimates it reduced its water consumption by 20%) is achievable with existing technology and at a cost equivalent to or less than that required to increase supply – and without the attendant negative environmental impacts.

It is an interesting report, and reinforces the fact that there are practical solutions to water scarcity that do not require us to sacrifice the environment.

Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Florida's New Water Standards

Well, it’s a new year, and I hope everyone had an enjoyable holiday season. And while most people are recovering from holiday excess, watching the fireworks in Washington, and the tragedy in Haiti, the EPA is continuing to tick along.

I have written twice before about litigation in Florida designed to force the EPA to enact numerical standards for nutrient pollution in Florida's waters. Those standards have now been issued. This begins a 60-day public comment period. Some estimate that the cost of complying with the proposed standards could exceed a billion dollars. A cost that will have to be borne by government and industry.

Certainly we can expect that the comment period – which may be extended – will be “vigorous.”

But the bigger question that has yet to play out is the impact of numerical standards on a national level – something for which this litigation has opened the door. And as expensive as numerical standards may be for Florida, the cost for other states could be even higher. Florida, unlike many states, already has a significant knowledge base regarding the quality of its waters - largely due to the diligence of various state and local agencies. States that have not been monitoring their water quality as diligently will have to do so if they are to have any hope of establishing scientifically valid nutrient standards. While the states should probably be doing this anyway, it isn't going to be cheap.

And in this age of economic woe, who is going to pay for it?

Most states are teetering on the edge of serious financial crisis – if they haven’t fallen over it already. The federal government is already up to its eyeballs in debt. And industry – at least the kinds of industry that will be affected by these new standards – isn’t exactly flush right now either.

Don’t get me wrong – I understand the compelling argument for the superiority of numerical standards over softer narrative standards. I think taking steps to prevent nutrient pollution is necessary. But the implementation of standards needs to be done in a balanced way, and the costs associated with the regulations need to be considered as part of the process. We should always strive to do better, but setting impossible or unrealistic goals only sets us up for failure.